Why Does Nature Have Redundant Copies?

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Who needs redundancy? Well, everyone, it turns out.

To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
- Ecological redundancy (also: functional redundancy or functional equivalence): the ecological phenomena that multiple species representing a variety of taxonomic groups can share similar roles in ecosystem functionality
- Legume: a plant in the Fabaceae family
- Nitrogen fixation: the chemical process by which atmospheric nitrogen is assimilated into organic compounds

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Cardinale BJ, et al. (2011). The functional role of producer diversity in ecosystems. Am. J. Bot., 98 (2011), pp. 572-592. bsapubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.co...

Clarke DM & Hollister I. (2010) Introduction to Redundancy. Safety and Reliability 30:4, 4-15. tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.108...

Huda AN, Salmah MRC, Hassan AA, Hamdan A, Razak MNA. 2015. Pollination services of mango flower pollinators. Journal of Insect Science 15: 113. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/...

Naeem, S. (1998) Species Redundancy and Ecosystem Reliability. Conservation Biology, 12, 39-45. conbio.onlinelibrary.wiley.com...

Paine, RT (1966). Food web complexity and species diversity. American Naturalist 100: 65– 75. jstor.org/stable/2459379